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   ????'|囗??D?箨?伴???3?闐????辁??2????3?闐????'|囗?????帔?-陏谤?瓯????'笞?3??????'|囗??1???????鑩??'|囗??'?????????3???驞????3y????a3y嶙?????'|囗????????D????D????喾???觋????驞??瓯'??騛?????????y????D????喾??辁100????3?闐????'|囗?????o???1???o???1????'???2???梃??????1??????D??3?闐????'|囗?1y?????

???????'|囗???

????3?闐????'|囗帔攴?樽?Y??1??T?黻???????瓯???3鑉?'???????????|2?1????噜?????D????????D?????????觎a?'?????o??3?闐????3????辁??????悫1y'?2????y??'??2????????3?篾?????????????噜?a????????辁??????'|??DD'|囗???????'|囗??2轶??????鞣????DD3??蝮???白???DD???????'????1?驞????????装??????箝篾?标盌?驞?2??????1???????????1??a???1762????1?a?2轶?????e???噜?'|囗3?闐??????

?????t??'|囗???

????驞????3y1を?

????辁???し

??????赅??D?????T1を?????a??????D??3?闐辁???????D??驞???3?a?3y??????1881???法1????蚍??麽???座辁??'髚???2???座???辁??'|囗3??amoris3???辁??-?a?辁??法'|囗??????D????1893?????座辁????3???1鶺ales??1???2???????T北??1?蝽?1??????????1??????标???2??1912????1??????'|囗????犰3??BOD5'???????????3???

??????D????喾

????1914???Ardeno鞮okett??1???1??衢??表???a1?篾??D????喾????????2?篾????1?31?1?闐?a''?赅?????座??D????喾????'|囗??3????阰???1?y??ㄡ????座??D????喾????'|囗3????D????喾????辁????ㄡ??''100???3?闐????'|囗??????'???

??????D????喾??辁??3???2轶????3?-???1を???箝篾?标弊???????????殍???t?????o????????2鞣????蜃篾??????辁????3??啾2??T?????????o筢?D????????狩???D????喾?–As法???ㄨ??1??3???o髈???????'????箝篾?狩?'髚??D???鄌???????3?3り????????1?????????????o?????D????喾???狴??2?1???2??????靉??1936?觎3???????????D????喾(TAAs)o1942?觎3??????????法(SFAS)???眅'??????????????????1?????oa??1950????1????e?犰3??黻??靜????D????喾?????法悫1y?????D??????辁??鑟??辁'?????1??觋髚????3??D蝌??????靁?璞?????驞D?a???????????觎a??

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??????????觊2??1?穙髚?o??????2?????D???????20赅?40-60?'????D????喾?e???'?辁???し??3?a????'|囗???麽1を???

????1921?????D????喾'?2????D1???D1?ㄩ栳???座????'|囗3?a?o?北??????'|囗3??1926??1927?牦??眅?ㄩ栳??o?????????????3???标3座??3???'|囗?12?a3.55眚????

??????a3y嶙1を?

????20赅?50?'???????骯?????觎a1??????a3y嶙3?a????'|囗??犴??黩a?????篾??????D????喾???'???3?????酓????a3y嶙1を???

????3y嶙1を?

????50?'3????嶙?????2??篾3y嶙???ㄨ??2??

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??a1を?

????1969????1??Barth灬3?2轶?鑩??法3y?a?ㄨ??3?????????o????????黩a?3y驞???????t????????????y??????'??????3y?a??

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????1973???Barnard??-驞1を??'??????璞??o韔???'髚?黜觇???????????狩??璞??'髚???2?祉?筢????狩装???????灬?1を?狩3??2????3?????璞??o????ˋ/O??1を??ㄨ??4????

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????A2O1を?

????70?'???1??鶤/O1を????'??????箝?3y嶙?3獒?A2O1を??ㄨ??5?????11986??3??1??Y'箪13????'|囗3??2轶????黻?A2O1を????标??殍??'|囗????a15眚??????标标????'??2轶?A2O1を???????'|囗3??

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????????1?1を?

????A2O1を????辁??'|囗?????o韔???????DD????????????????1???a穉???1??tD?11???醥???狩?o眄觇??靜????D????喾???????????????3?韔?????????????o??D???????靜?騩2??????-?丰??????3?D?1?D?3閛?????o龛?????????????辁????a3y嶙?ㄨ??6????????1?白祆??????????1???作3?3?????D????喾?啾 , ????驞'|囗1を??11?t????????噌?3???筻???嚅?蜩Y蜃?????'|囗D1????梵????

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????1953???o猷???1?12?嚅13?D??D-???Pasveer?D???3??????1?1を???2?3??a???1????1????1954????鷒猷???伏Dろ??╒oorshoten????灬???座????1?????'|囗3???标狈t???????a360???60 ?'???a????????T??北?鄌?????1?????????1?o眢|????Y3??????1977??a?1?????敷D3?1y2000?嘧????1????D????1?????DD??

????1967???o猷?DHV1????a??D?????3????–arroussel??????1????????箝??t'?醓组3??????1???3????3???????1?????1?-帔???悫??3???????1?????3???2000????1?o??3???3000????1?鑩???????

????1970????1??Envirex1?????辁2??'???∣rbal??????1????3??D??癉??蝽??2D??t?嘧3????t??????囗???????栩y??韆???t???????D2????-????瓯??蜞'??????????t?????斌???酓黻??靜?'髚3?'?醓???e???o'?DD????t???3???

????????1ぷ????1??箝?????3???↘ruger??1????D??????1を???????蜃篾?????悫3?驞??1????o龛y1?????═D????1?????????1???3o戆????1ぷ麝?????1???

???????法1を?

????????????法??????熳??D????喾???组11?t??'?醓?????o?t??????3???y?囗?????鄌?2??ㄩ??'2??驞???????????????a????t????????oo閛?????3??????牝a?篾?囗???y????3?????????D????喾?ㄨ??7?????????箝篾????????3???y??D????????斌????oo???筢?????'|?追?辁??????????????DD1???a唰????

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????20赅?70?'?D?????1??Botho Bohnke?礻?a??AB1を??ㄨ??8??????1を??'?3???法???'?????2?灬????????'A????????oo??????oo????噌???????DD????B???3?1???D????喾??????oo??????噌???3??A??箝篾?噌?????噌?'??嶙???3yD1?o黲????-A???3y?'筢???驞????o驜??????y?''??D???????oo????DD???殪??3???????????箝篾A???3y?'筢???驞???????B????'璞戋?????'|囗?????3?闐????瓯??1を?????2?2??????

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??????o???a??a????a瓯?????鶧栩a3?噌???3y嶙瓯??嶙??辁??D栩a??噌?????????a??AO-A2O1を??ㄨ??9??????1を?箝???????噌?????ao3y嶙1を?组3???????噌?????黩a?篾3y嶙????t???噌?3???oo????篾??a??

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?????鶤O-A2O1を??'???????D?3??Hybrid1を??ㄨ??10??????1を??????????驞鑩?????狩装?????轵??a????????3?灬1?????a??????????a??t??????3?灬1???'???????黩a??3y驞???o磲????t???????1|???2???????????3???狩?靜?騩??DD'??????a??

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????SBR1を?

????D????D????喾(SBR)1を??????????????o???????DD?????20 赅?70 ?'3?箝?1鶬rvine1????a?????3扉???驞????????a??????3???????3?o?t33???1|??3?????DD????????????辁?????a驞???o1祢o??????-?? SBR '髚?????DD1y3?a?o??????????3???????'y??ㄨ??11?? 12????

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????80 ?'3????D??????? ICEAS 1を???辁?ㄨ??13??????1を??'?3??SBR1を??'?????'髚3??D???篁?????? ,??'髚3?????aD???y???し'髚??o'箪??y???鞣'髚??,?????D?狩??し'髚??,?o箜1y??????????D??昨?2?狩??????鞣'髚?????a?????Da????????觎a??

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??????o?? Goranzy ?礻?a?? CASS /CAST 1を????ICEAS1を?噜?????'髚3???????筢??????????,?????梵?'??鞣'髚??????狩?靜?騩????????靜?????????t????????????斌??????3?,?a??D3y嶙''?灬?驞???t??

????90 ?'??辫?瓯??????11????y1??????1????'???a?? UNITANK ??3??? 3 ????D?3?组3,???D韆??2????D?3???樽?????3?,??樽?3?3?,?D???????D?3????????3???1を??'?3 SBR??瓯???狩??D???3???????狩驞D???醥???e'??

????MSBR法?'???D??SBR( Modified SBR)??2轶???3??????,?醥??'?3??D????喾╫鞸BR??????????'髚?黧??????o磲??????D?'|囗??组3????????????????DD??1y3?D?3??D????????????????1y3?D?????D?'|囗??????眅作?aSBRo3???3?????1を??獒?D???????殛1??????1???o矸????

??????a3y嶙D?1を?

?????????????'??钻?'???扈彬??-騳?e?1?穙??1???????2???a3y嶙?????'????白?'?????D?3?a?????'|囗1を???1???麽鞣??????鶧?D???a3y嶙??????髚???

????ANAMMOX-SHARON 组o?1を???

????1994???o猷?Delft'??a?????氨?????ˋNAMMOX??????????氨??????????3?D???1????о?左(NH4+)???????(NO2-)?????a?a????

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??????1を??'?3'????1を??啾桕?黻??????2?D梃?o?驞???'??

????1998???o猷?Delft'???3????'?????-囗?a??SHARON1を???曜鄖13?鷒猷??1??OKHAVEN??3???????-囗????'髚??????D????t???????????????氨????3镹O2-???o??????t???驞????a??左1???????????'??????D?3?a????1を?狩3?????TD????Do???'?3??D????喾?啾???轾25%??1?????40%??'??????'??驞?篾钻?'??'??????????牦?篾??a辫???????3?闐?????

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??????????SHARON1を??a????'髚???ANAMMOX1を??a'????'髚????'?31を??啾?1???60%??1???o100%????'??

????鑩??'|囗???

????????????????????????钻?'?扈???????噜?????觎3???????騛?????????'|囗???????D??e??????'|囗3??2????2???o????????????????????o??????????????a????????囔?????

????辁???????20赅?60-70?'?????D?D韔?32????'筢?????'???1?e'???黩a1を?驞辁????3???辁??譨???辁???'???????辁??狩??'2????????髚???????'|囗????黩a驞?????∕F????3????║F????'???≧O??o?ら??'髚??∕BR????????赅?3???D?????癗ewwater ???3?黻?2轶???t??'|囗o?3?????胺'?????????DD??????'|囗??

?????攴?a??????aD??????1?????帔攴1y3??3?闐辁??????'|囗?????????噜??????D???????3?赆??????????????'|囗3??????????箝????瓯21??钻?e?????3楸??觎a???????'|囗1を??????2???????????2????????3霥2??????'钻?'?????????????????????????????D???'????????'|囗1y3扈'??'???黧?虮???驞瑜??????T??????牝?????'o??????辁??????1??'???????磲??1???3?闐????'|囗??o?????????3???D??????1???D?靜???????o?????2??轫???????'蠓辫????????1?1轶????